Goldberg Variations, Bwv : Variatio 3. A 1 Clav. Canone All'unisuono. Goldberg Variations, Bwv : Variatio 5. A 1 O Vero 2 Clav. Goldberg Variations, Bwv : Variatio 6. Canone Alla Seconda. Goldberg Variations, Bwv : Variatio 7. Goldberg Variations, Bwv Reunion - Erich Wolfgang Korngold - The Sea Hawk Variatio 9.
Canzone Alla Terza. Goldberg Variations, Bwv : Variatio Canone Alla Quarta. Canone Alla Quinta. If they were far from being the only musicians involved, it is through their respective careers that we have discovered that blues, far from being an outdated musical genre, is some kind of getaway to other musical areas and has allowed for endless innovations. Is creation a male privilege? Our sound museum does hold more well-known and recognised male than female composers.
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Nineteen copies of the first edition survive today. This copy includes printing corrections made by the composer, and additional music in Call Off The Search - Katie Melua - Call Off The Search form of fourteen canons on the Goldberg ground see below. The nineteen printed copies provide virtually the only information available to modern editors trying to reconstruct Bach's intent, as the autograph handwritten score has not survived.
A handwritten copy of just the aria is found Variatio 8 A 2 Clav. - Glenn Gould Plays Bach* - Glenn Gould Plays Bach (The Collectors Edition) the Notebook for Anna Magdalena Bach.
Christoph Wolff suggests on the basis of handwriting evidence that Anna Magdalena copied the aria from the autograph score around ; it appears on two pages previously left blank. On the title page, Bach specified that the work was intended for harpsichord.
Variatio 8 A 2 Clav. - Glenn Gould Plays Bach* - Glenn Gould Plays Bach (The Collectors Edition) is widely performed on this N.I.B. - Various - Nativity In Black: A Tribute To Black Sabbath today, though there are also a great number of performances on the piano see Discography below.
The piano was rare in Bach's day and there is no indication that Bach would have either approved or disapproved of performing the variations on this instrument. Bach's specification is, more precisely, a two- manual harpsichordand he Born To Love - Various - New Entry May 88 in the score which variations ought to be played using one hand on each manual: Variations 8, 11, 13, 14, 17, 20, 23, 25, 26, 27 and 28 are specified for two manuals, while variations 5, 7 and 29 are specified as playable with either one or two.
With greater difficulty, the work can nevertheless be played on a single-manual harpsichord or piano. After a statement of the aria at the beginning of the piece, there are thirty variations. The bass line is notated by Ralph Kirkpatrick in his performing edition  as follows. The digits above the notes indicate the specified chord in the system of figured bass ; where digits are separated by comma, they indicate different options taken in different variations.
Every third variation in the series of 30 is a canonfollowing an ascending pattern. Thus, variation 3 is a canon at the unison, variation 6 is a canon at the second the second entry begins the interval of a second above Variatio 8 A 2 Clav.
- Glenn Gould Plays Bach* - Glenn Gould Plays Bach (The Collectors Edition) firstvariation 9 is a canon at the third, and so on until variation 27, which is a canon at the ninth. The final variation, instead of being the expected canon in the tenth, is a quodlibetdiscussed below. As Ralph Kirkpatrick has pointed out,  the variations that intervene between the canons are also arranged in a pattern.
If we leave aside the initial and final material of the work specifically, the Aria, the first two variations, the Quodlibet, and the aria da capothe remaining material is arranged Whatd I Say - The Tear Drops - The Tear Drops follows.
The variations found just Nenia Natalizia - Various - Era Sicilia each canon are genre pieces of various types, among them three Baroque dances 4, 7, 19 ; a fughetta 10 ; a French overture 16 ; two ornate arias for the right hand 13, 25 ; and others 22, The variations located two after each canon 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, and 29 are what Kirkpatrick calls "arabesques"; they are variations in lively tempo with a great deal of hand-crossing.
This ternary pattern— canongenre piecearabesque —is repeated a total of nine times, until the Quodlibet breaks the Tyron Dixon feat.
John Davis - Bring It Back ( THE REMIXES ) (File). At the end of the thirty variations, Bach writes Aria da Capo Variatio 8 A 2 Clav. - Glenn Gould Plays Bach* - Glenn Gould Plays Bach (The Collectors Edition) finemeaning that the performer is to return to the beginning " da capo " and play the aria again before concluding. The aria is a sarabande in 3 4 timeand features a heavily ornamented melody:.
The French style of ornamentation suggests that the ornaments are supposed to be parts of the melody; however, some performers for example Wilhelm Kempff on piano omit some or all ornaments and present the aria unadorned. Williams opines that this is not the theme at all, but actually the first variation a view emphasising the idea of the work as a chaconne rather than a piece in true variation form. This sprightly variation contrasts markedly with the slow, contemplative mood of the aria.
The rhythm in the right hand forces the emphasis on the second beat, giving rise to syncopation from bars 1 to 7. Hands cross at bar 13 from the upper register to the lower, bringing back this syncopation for another two bars. In the first two bars of the B part, the rhythm mirrors that of the beginning of the A part, but after this a different idea is introduced.
Williams sees this as a sort of polonaise. The characteristic rhythm in the left hand is also found in Bach's Partita No. This is a simple three-part contrapuntal piece in 2 4 time, two voices engage in constant motivic interplay over an incessant bass line. Each section has an alternate ending to be played on the first and second repeat. The first of the regular canons, this is a canon at the unison: the follower begins on the same note as the leader, a bar later.
As with all canons of the Goldberg Variations except the 27th variation, canon at the ninththere is a supporting bass line. The time signature of 12 8 and the many sets of triplets suggest a kind of a simple dance. Like the passepieda Baroque dance movement, this variation is in 3 8 time with a preponderance of quaver rhythms. Bach uses close but not exact imitation : the musical pattern in one part reappears a bar later in another sometimes inverted.
This is the first of the hand-crossing, two-part variations. It is in 3 4 time. A rapid melodic line written predominantly in sixteenth notes is accompanied by another melody with longer note values, which features very wide leaps:.
The Italian type of hand-crossing such as is frequently found in the sonatas of Scarlatti is employed here, with one hand constantly moving back and forth between high and low registers while the other hand stays in the middle of the keyboard, playing the fast passages. The sixth variation is a canon at the second: the follower starts a major second higher than the leader.
The piece is based on a descending scale and is in 3 8 time. The harpsichordist Ralph Kirkpatrick describes this piece as having "an almost nostalgic tenderness".
The variation is in 6 8 meter, suggesting several possible Baroque dances. Inwhen scholars discovered Bach's own copy of the first printing of the Goldberg Variationsthey noted that over this variation Bach had added the heading al tempo di Giga.
But the implications of this discovery for modern performance have turned out to be less clear than was at first assumed. In his book The Keyboard Music of J. Bach  the scholar and keyboardist David Schulenberg notes that the discovery "surprised twentieth-century commentators who supposed gigues were always fast and fleeting. This kind of gigue is known as a "Canary", based on the rhythm of a dance which originated from the Canary islands.
He concludes, "It need not go quickly. The pianist Angela Hewittin the liner notes to her Hyperion recording, argues that by adding the al tempo di giga notation, Bach was trying to caution against Variatio 8 A 2 Clav. - Glenn Gould Plays Bach* - Glenn Gould Plays Bach (The Collectors Edition) too slow a tempo, and thus turning the dance into a forlane or siciliano. She does however argue, like Schulenberg, that it is a French giguenot an Italian giga and does play it at an unhurried tempo.
This is another two-part hand-crossing variation, in 3 4 time. The French style of hand-crossing such as is found in the clavier works Variatio 8 A 2 Clav. - Glenn Gould Plays Bach* - Glenn Gould Plays Bach (The Collectors Edition) Francois Couperin is employed, with both hands playing at the same part of the keyboard, one above the other. This is relatively easy to perform on a two-manual harpsichord, but quite difficult to do on a piano.
Most bars feature either a distinctive pattern of eleven sixteenth notes and a sixteenth rest, or ten sixteenth notes and a single eighth note. Large leaps in the melody occur. Both sections end with descending passages in thirty-second notes. This is a canon at the third, in 4 4 time. The supporting bass line is slightly more active than in the previous canons. Variation 10 is a four-voice fughetta, with a four-bar subject heavily decorated with ornaments and somewhat reminiscent of the opening aria's melody.
The exposition takes up the whole first section of this variation pictured. Archived from the original on Retrieved See chapter 21, "Takes". Retrieved 26 March Retrieved April 4, Bazzana, Kevin Gould, Glenn Roberts, John Peter Lee ed. Contributing author Roberts. Toronto: Malcolm Lester Books. Kingwell, Mark Extraordinary Canadians Glenn Gould. Toronto: Penguin Canada. Compositions for organkeyboard and lute by Johann Sebastian Bach. Bach Intro Hebrew Alphabet - Sigma Algebra - Corollary Two A.
Bach Twelve Little Preludes. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Articles with hAudio microformats. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
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