Alternatively, they will have to withdraw not just from Afghanistan, but also from most of the conflicts of the 21st century. The controversy was not new.
It had been raging ever since the Bush administration had launched Operation Enduring Freedom OEF in Afghanistan in retaliation for the September 11 attacks on American soil and had called on humanitarian NGOs to join in the war effort.
Yet, in the months that preceded the killing of its personnel, MSF found itself in an ambivalent position where the western forces and Afghan authorities it wanted to distance itself from were, in effect, its main interlocutors. What made it possible then for MSF to return to Afghanistan in and relaunch programmes, not only in Kabul, but also in Helmand province, one of the areas most contested by western troops, the Afghan security apparatus and armed opposition groups?
The deadliest year for aid workers had beenand saw civilian and military casualties reach unprecedented levels. Unlike usual representations of humanitarian action—associated with emergency intervention and rapid deployment of resources—the following account shows the ongoing process of reinserting MSF into the Afghan field to be a long and sustained effort to identify and engage negotiating Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) on all sides and at all levels along their respective line of command.
The most obvious change in the wake of September 11 was that, after years of neglect, Afghanistan was to become the theatre of major and direct intervention by western armed forces. As several voices in the international MSF movement stated, the role of a humanitarian agency is not to judge the reasons or objectives of a war, but rather the means used to carry it out.
All the more so as MSF, like most humanitarian agencies, had all but evacuated Afghanistan before the start of the US bombing campaign when the Taliban regime warned it could no longer guarantee the safety of foreign aid workers. Further undermining the relevance of the humanitarian voice at that stage, the expectation of a refugee crisis and of the subsequent emergency needs that had led to massive Poll - The Monkees - Head of aid at the borders of the country proved unfounded.
When, in NovemberMSF expatriate teams returned to Afghanistan only days after the fall of the Taliban government and the seizure of Kabul by the Northern Alliance, there was no significant emergency situation to address. With operations in fifteen provinces by the end ofthe MSF movement could again claim to be one of the leading healthcare providers in the country, as it had been for most of the previous decade.
However, the implications of such a role were soon to become a problem. With funds now available from a variety of state donors anxious to show their contribution to the American effort, the aid community began to soar.
The country was to be the test case for the new integrated approach to UN peace operations that Brahimi himself had played a leading role in designing. Politics and aid were now integrated into the same structure, with politics firmly in the driving seat. For the main donors—the United States, the European Commission and the World Bank—health was a prime locus of political legitimacy and a multi-million dollar programme was established in to allocate the provision of basic healthcare in rural areas of entire provinces to NGOs selected by the Afghan Ministry of Public Health MOPH and international donors.
Refusing publicly to participate in the reconstruction-funding scheme, they declared instead that the ongoing conflict involving international forces, whether part of the US-led Coalition or the UN-mandated International Security Assistance Force ISAFjustified the sustained provision of independent and impartial humanitarian assistance. Although the five Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) sections were Wat Ben Je Mooi - Bobby Ranger - Wat Ben Je Mooi / Mijn Vakantielief in this position of principle, they were less consistent in translating it into operational terms.
Limited in size, such programmes were no doubt of value to their direct beneficiaries, but were of little interest to the Karzai administration and its international backers who were bent on demonstrating quick results on a large scale. Despite maintaining medical programmes in the southern cities of Kandahar and Ghazni, MSF had little visibility or impact on the effects of the relatively silent war building up in the surrounding areas.
In fact, it had made no real attempt to restore contact with the Taliban since their fall from power. In spite of all the arguments put forward at the press conference to justify its departure from the country, the killing was felt by many within the MSF Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) to be a tragic conclusion to an ongoing process of retreat.
Jihad party leaders and local commanders granted the MSF teams protection in return for the assistance they provided to their constituency and for the financial and military support from western states some of them hoped the visible presence of MSF would favour.
When MSF returned after the fall of the communist regime init addressed a very different context with very different means. Initiating operations in Kabul, now the scene of an all-out civil war among the different factions, the organisation was able to make use of the logistical capacity developed during the previous decade in other set-tings—cars, radios and the airlifting of medical supplies. Between andtwo significant developments opened the way for some in MSF to reconsider options for a return to Afghanistan.
Over-confident and anxious to reallocate forces to Iraq, the Bush administration unilaterally decided to reduce US troops in the south and called on its ill-prepared NATO allies to take over. This was the opportunity for the armed opposition based in Pakistan to launch a major offensive in the spring of Ahmed Rashid, Descent into Chaos.
Their influence gradually extended to other parts of the country, including the north. Secondly, and in opposition to the first development, the ICRC had undertaken, during the same period, a unique endeavour to restore dialogue with the armed opposition and to gain recognition of its neutrality.
The assassination of its delegate infollowed a few months later by the murderous attack on its delegation in Iraq, had led to much soul-searching within the ICRC. Inwhile MSF was deciding to withdraw from Afghanistan, the ICRC instead began to make use of the wide range of activities included in its mandate, such as access to detainees, orthopaedic programmes and donations, to demonstrate its Theres A Catch - Big Steel - Welcome To My World relevance to the opposition and open up channels of communication with its leadership.
It was right in the middle of this hostage crisis that an MSF team carried out an assessment in Afghanistan. Its findings conveyed the sense that innovative approaches were needed if MSF was to return to the country. Given the context, the standard practice of having several autonomous sections in the field and programmes run by expatriate staff prone to a high turnover was cause for concern, but much uncertainty remained among MSF sections over what an acceptable alternative could be.
The armed opposition appeared to be asking for increased medical assistance for its combatants and the people in the war zones, and the ICRC wished to have other humanitarian actors in the field to help meet the growing needs stemming from the conflict. Despite persistent security concerns, these recommendations and offers of Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) helped to strengthen the case for a return within MSF.
There was now a consensus on the necessity for a single representation and, to this end, it was the Belgium section of MSF that was selected to conduct negotiations and assume full operational responsibility in Afghanistan Kalopsia (Monogatos Filth Remix) - Various - Classic Trance Tracks Vol.
3 behalf of the movement for a period of two years. At the same time, preliminary contacts were made with representatives of the armed opposition over the course ofduring which the Tali-ban denied responsibility for the Badghis murders. It was now up to the designated operational team to develop a pertinent humanitarian role for MSF in Afghanistan. The broad outline of the operational strategy was set out in Februaryat the end of a ten-day visit to Kabul led by the newly appointed head of mission.
He recommended that the mission be geared toward providing medical care in areas where the health system had been the most disrupted by the conflict. In spite of the lack of reliable data, the war-torn areas in the south and east of the country appeared to be most in need, but accessing them could only be Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) as a medium-term objective.
Security conditions made travel by road to these areas all but impossible—not only for expatriates but also for Afghans from other parts of the country—let alone conducting health assessments.
It was therefore preferable for MSF to opt for less sensitive operations as a first step to gaining credibility and to develop a reliable local network that would help achieve its longer-term goal. The head of mission recommended focusing on improving Hey Porter - Johnny Cash - The Collection healthcare in towns either close to conflict zones or accessible by plane.
This would respond to an obvious medical need, since the hospitals in many provincial capitals, and even Kabul, had largely been excluded from donor funding, and it would enable expatriate teams to be sent to the field. The presence of expatriates, albeit limited in number and confined to their accommodation and places of work, was deemed necessary to ensure effective monitoring of the activities but, above all, to conduct direct negotiations with the warring parties, as recommended by the ICRC.
It was thus decided that MSF would support two public hospitals. One was Boost provincial hospital in Lashkar Gah, the capital city of Helmand province, a region where intense fighting had been taking place for several years between the international forces, the Afghan army and the armed opposition; the other was a district hospital in the east suburb of Kabul, an area which was drawing a growing number of migrants and displaced people. Since its departure, the authorities had drawn up new regulations with the tacit support of the UNAMA and international donors to strengthen their control over the NGO community.
He was therefore Astrological Forecast - Shirley Q. Liquor - The Best Of Shirley Q. Liquor Volume 1 to exempt the organisation from the subcontracting framework and to press other government departments to legally register MSF in the country.
The Memorandums of Understanding MoUs for the projects were the subject of little discussion and both were signed on 30 June The Afghan press agency reported the event in two separate press releases, which left little doubt as to the different positions of the two signatories. The provisions of the two MoUs gave MSF control over its medical activities and stipulated the application of humanitarian law within the healthcare facilities.
Weapons were prohibited within hospital compounds, which from then on would be under the control of MSF-employed guards. Any third-party support for the hospital, notably by A Vision - Yvor Winters - Yvor Winters Reads From His Own Works forces, was to be subject to prior agreement.
Lastly, in keeping with the Geneva Conventions, patients were not to be harassed or arrested by security forces during treatment and, as long Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) were not deemed medically fit, to be subjected to interrogation.
As for the medical staff, they could not be prosecuted for treating patients, whoever they were. Enforcement of these clauses entailed further negotiations, however, especially in the case of Boost hospital in Lashkar Gah. British troops from the ISAF International Security Assistance Forceprivate security companies protecting British government development officials, the police, the army and the Afghan secret services—the National Directorate for Security NDS —were used to moving around freely and heavily armed inside the hospital premises.
While the MoU Paint By Numbers - Hayley Sales - Sunseed effective in getting the Afghan police and army to put a stop to the practice, the others would only comply if ordered to do so by their hierarchy.
Negotiations with the international forces thus started by establishing contact with the British authorities. The coordination team initiated the process in Kabul through meetings with the British ambassador before going to London to meet with the relevant inter-ministerial and military departments. The objectives of the MSF delegation were to inform the US political and military leadership of the medical programmes it planned to develop in Afghanistan and to request that all military forces under US command, including Special Forces, respect the protected status of the MSF medical mission.
At the time of the visit, the still-new Obama administration was preparing a second strategic review of the war in Afghanistan. In sharp contrast with the usual reactions from the PRT officers in the field, they made no objection to the remark made by the representatives of the organisation that, from a humanitarian perspective, MSF made no difference between its relations with the US military and with the Taliban.
The international negotiations may have incidentally led to other benefits. They Bill Bailey,Wont You Please Come Home? - Billy Cotton And His Band, Kathie Kay, Alan Breeze, Alma C launched officially in Kabul in October, but remained effectively on hold in Lashkar Gah until January This was in essence a sovereignty issue, as most districts in the southern provinces, and consequently road traffic, were under effective control of this group.
Hence, in the spring ofMSF set about establishing different contacts with the opposition, this time relying on its own network of former Afghan staff and, by the summer, had Never Going Nowhere - The Bluetones - Blue Movies (DVD) able to initiate communication with known IEA members.
Right from their first discussions, these new interlocutors made clear to MSF that its earlier contacts were not legitimate representatives of their group.
The IEA was rooted in the south but was also influential in the rising insurgencies in the west and north. The two groups were partner organisations, but they had distinct constituencies and interests. From then on, the two channels should be engaged separately for negotiation, depending on the area at stake.
While MSF had been successful in expanding its network, time had nonetheless been lost in identifying the right contacts to secure guarantees in Helmand. This decision effectively prohibited the safe transport of drugs by road from Kabul to Helmand. It took six more months to resolve the issue. MSF defended its operational choice as a necessary first step to import drugs and insisted that, with its teams already on the ground and drugs waiting in Kabul, it was too late to cut the project short.
The agency also stressed it had received assurances from foreign and Afghan forces that they would not interfere in the hospitals. On the part of the IEA, security considerations were inseparable from issues of legitimacy and the authorisation for the transport of drugs MSF was asking for was used as a bargaining chip to extract further guarantees and concessions from the organisation.
Airing their distrust of the MOPH doctors in Lashkar Gah and of US respect for the Geneva Conventions, the opposition demanded that MSF give a commitment in writing stating that it had control over the hospital staff and provide an official MoU with the US military to prove their compliance with humanitarian law.
MSF was careful not to commit itself regarding the behaviour of the international forces, stressing instead its ability to hold them to account through the media. At Boost hospital, they were now held on a daily basis between the expatriate team and the local medical staff. These habits and vested interests were hard to change, to the detriment of the quality of care. Negotiations on setting up good management of the hospital were all the more difficult to conduct during the early stages of the project as, in a dangerous environment where MSF was a newcomer, the expatriate team was small and could not take the risk of alienating the local medical team.
By the end ofthe mission coordinators considered they had enough guarantees to expand the international medical team in Lashkar Gah. In Novembera patient survey concluded that the majority of people in Helmand could neither afford nor risk going to Boost hospital for treatment.
Taking a taxi from the districts to the city cost an average of dollars and mines, fighting and intimidation were constant threats that few people would risk, even in cases of dire emergency. They are killing each other by the hundreds, why would they stop for just one patient? It might be all right for you to be here, but can you come to my district?
Indeed, divisions among opposition commanders in Helmand have up until today prevented MSF from getting the agreements and security guarantees that would allow it to do so.
They had resigned themselves to this option in order to be able to secure the authorisations from the Afghan government that would afford them more latitude with other programmes as quickly as possible. After the first round of negotiations, expectations ran high among the leaders of the armed opposition for the opening of new projects in the regions under their control. While seeking to consolidate its existing programmes, MSF thus undertook, as early as the spring ofto assess new areas for interventions, hoping they could be set up in independent facilities.
The two provinces chosen for this second operational phase were Khost and Kunduz. The heartland of the Haqqani network in southeast Afghanistan, Khost was also the location of the main OEF Operation Enduring Freedom base in the country from where counter-terrorism operations across the border with Pakistan were carried out. In line with the available health data, the elders expressed a need for mother and child healthcare. MSF could set up a programme involving female expatriates, which, as the elders had to acknowledge, was the only way to ensure Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) local women would be cared for.
Emboldened by this perspective, one of the Man With The Red Face (Jan Driver Mix) - Various - Global Underground suggested including mental health in the programme to address what he saw as a worrying trend of suicides among women in the region. For an expatriate team to be able to settle in the town of Khost and launch such a programme, MSF first had to undertake a new round of negotiations to obtain security guarantees from all the warring parties.
Access to the city of Kunduz was less of a security issue, but the situation in the districts was a different matter altogether. Kunduz had been the first northern Christophe Willem - Love Shot Me Down (File, Album) where the IEA had expanded its influence and fighting had increased over the previous year.
As armed confrontation was a relatively recent phenomenon, the local health system had not yet experienced the same disruption seen in the southern provinces such as Helmand. But Kunduz had become a strategic location; a new supply route for international forces crossing the province from Tajikistan and a recent arrival of American troops under OEF command were creating widespread anticipation of an upcoming escalation in the conflict.
An expatriate team was positioned in the town of Kunduz to initiate discussions with the many local armed groups upon whom access to the districts was dependent. It was later decided to set up a trauma centre in the provincial capital to cater to the direct victims of the conflict. The project was to be housed in a private building to ensure full independence. In Decemberthe Kunduz authorities Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) the project.
This further complicated negotiations, and still the conditions for the organisation to start its project had not been met. In particular, without agreement on a referral system allowing wounded patients to be taken in safety from the districts to the MSF facility without risk of arrest or attack, not all the parties would be able to benefit from the project.
In this context, expectations weighing on MSF remain high. These remarks point to the same evidence, namely that humanitarian action is a symptom of war, not a cure—of war, at least. The situation prevailing in Afghanistan today is no less polarised than it was when MSF left the country in and it is no doubt far more violent.
The key change from the perspective of the humanitarian actor is that medical operations in conflict-ridden areas are now seen by the competing warring-parties as building, to varying degrees, their own claim for legitimacy. MSF has been able so far to play along with these evolving perceptions by demonstrating that its medical assistance could appeal to each side.
It remains no doubt a fragile equation, which to date has allowed little improvement in access to the population trapped in war-affected rural areas. To Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) Ghost Town - Evolution, the current scaling-up phase does contribute to a higher standing for Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) in the eyes of its high level interlocutors, but for this to last, continuity in interactions and perceived interests is crucial.
However, the need for medical assistance is in all probability even more vital in the FATA where health workers are often unwilling to work due to the lack of security. The organisation has made every effort to distinguish itself from the counter insurgency humanitarianism promoted by the authorities.
But how successful have these efforts been in securing access to the most vulnerable populations? In practice, counter-insurgency COIN priorities determine where national and international aid is delivered and who receives it. Even after the floods ofthese areas remained off limits to MSF despite the increase in need for healthcare assistance. The official explanation given to MSF by the army was its inability to ensure the safety of international staff. A collective punishment enshrined in the Frontier Crimes Regulation Act FCR results in aid being distributed according to region of origin rather than need.
The main challenge was to gain the acceptance of all the different political and military agents—those who either supported or opposed the government. MSF first worked in the Swat valley in KPK province in to when the armed opposition groups were in control of the area. Pakistani nationals ran operations with the support of international staff who made Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) visits.
In order to be authorised to work in the valley, the Pakistani authorities demanded that MSF obtain security clearance from the opposition. The organisation had direct access to the opposition high command who themselves maintained dialogue with the state at that time. MSFs strategic partnership with the Swat Doctors Society, the supply of medicines and equipment for emergency rooms, and the setting up of an ambulance service enhanced the reputation of the organisation as a recognised medical service provider.
MSF accepted to intervene without the presence of any international staff, as the parties involved in the conflict did not want to be responsible for the security of expatriates. This compromise was made because it was possible to talk to the opposition. Following a series of security incidents, which included the murder Little Lou - John Ashley - Born To Rock two MSF staff in a clearly marked ambulance, MSF was forced to close its projects in the district in May Between May and Julythe Pakistani army launched a major offensive in the Swat valley which caused the displacement of over three million people and led to the opposition losing control over the region.
Government of NWFP, Malakand comprehensive stabilisation and socioeconomic development strategy. Swat is one of the districts of the Malakand division. In addition to this infrastructure funding, the US government provided approximately 36 million dollars of direct aid to the KPK government, with 12 million dollars earmarked for Recovery, Staffing and Supplies for the Department of Health. Where there are funds, there are NGOs. In the case of Swat, it is estimated that up to eighty national and international NGOs arrived in the Swat valley after the military offensive.
The Mingora hospital emergency room was barely functioning and, despite claims that the conflict was over, insecurity remained, as witnessed by the sporadic influx of numerous wounded patients. The principal challenge faced by the organisation was how to function in these conditions without compromising its ability to be accepted by local groups opposed to the When Tomorrow Comes - Prime Code - Somewhere Today and its COIN strategy in and around Swat.
As a preventive measure, MSF, bolstered by the trust of the population gained during its previous intervention in the region, decided to make a public statement as part of a broader strategy to engage with the population in Swat. A press release in the local media explained what its intentions were in returning to the area. As an emergency medical organisation that is focused solely on providing lifesaving care, MSF is not involved in rebuilding Swat after the offensive, nor are we part of any military or political strategy.
MSF press release, 25 July MSF also decided to no longer refer to itself in its contacts with different parties as an NGO—synonymous with US funding, connections to the UN and faith-based organisations—but rather as a private medical organisation and, later, as a medical humanitarian association.
It was also necessary to find the right partners to implement its programmes. This required extensive networking with various groups within the community, in Swat and in the region. Specifically, MSF tried to establish relationships with madrasas religious schools and national NGOs, who played an important role in the response to the displacement caused by the conflict and the floods in In the other areas of northwest Pakistan where MSF had been unable to negotiate access afterthe organisation might have been able to operate, had it agreed to work through national NGOs or with Pakistani nationals exclusively.
Yet the decision was taken in not to replicate this strategy in other parts of the FATA and KPK: in such a highly political and contested context, and without direct dialogue with the opposition, MSF considered it essential to have mixed national and international teams, because international staff can provide a buffer between national staff and community pressures, including pressures from armed groups.
This was a lesson learnt from Swat where the MSF national staff running the projects were put under immense pressure to take increased security risks to respond to the needs of their community, resulting in the loss of two MSF ambulance staff in But, as these would have been provided by one of the parties to the conflict, they would have made MSF a target. MSF is still only able to operate in those areas to which the government allows it access. The extent of its operations in these areas is far greater than any other humanitarian organisation has achieved.
However, despite these successes, MSF has been unable to gain enough leverage to access FATA, where needs are likely to be most acute, with compromises that the organisation deems acceptable. As a result, the positions of the Belgian, Spanish, Dutch and Swiss sections also operating in Somalia are not covered in any detail. In Januaryten members of a team in Tuj Walaje in the north were kidnapped by Somaliland separatists and, in Aprilthe Dutch section of MSF was working in Hargeisa when the town was hit by a heavy bombing raid.
The decade that followed began with a conflict that was the outcome of a process initiated years earlier and combined the collapse of the government with an explosion in the number of private armies built around individuals, clans and entrepreneurs.
Following the fall of President Siad Barre inMSF embarked on a series of operations in a Mogadishu torn apart by clan rivalry, in rural areas with displaced people and in Kenya among the Somali refugees who had fled the war. Relief operations were carried out in one of the most dangerous environments MSF had ever encountered.
From April to Marchthe United Nations Two Of Us - The Beatles - Let It Be several consecutive missions intended to ensure compliance with a ceasefire by the main warring factions, as well as the safety of humanitarian aid.
Successive reinforcements of the international force, however, were to contribute to its becoming directly involved in the conflict.
Civilian Apeweek - Gary Panter + Jay Cotton - One Hell Soundwich military losses increased, while the international forces themselves perpetrated war crimes. The confusion between humanitarian aid and international military intervention reached a climax. This decision was also based on the decline in mortality caused by the famine.
Over the years that followed the country remained a focus of confrontation between political-military leaders. Roland Marchal covers the latter in detail, as the term primarily used by institutions and the international media to describe the Somali leaders in charge of the warring militias.
In spite of regular interruptions, MSF continued to work on projects to provide assistance to the Somali population. In expatriate doctor Ricardo Marques was assassinated in the hospital in Baidoa supported by Poleva - Karel - Unaven Davem French section, which had returned to the country two years earlier. This incident prompted a second withdrawal.
During the summer ofthe Islamic Courts Union ICUestablished in the mids in an attempt to restore order in Mogadishu, took control of the capital, which they intended to use as a testing ground for an Islamic Somalia. The population of Mogadishu saw a period of calm it had not known for fifteen years and the international airport, closed sincereopened. A window of opportunity emerged for relief organisations that hoped security conditions were about to improve.
The opportunity turned out to be short-lived. In Decemberthe Ethiopian government, fearing the establishment of a radical Islamist regime on its doorstep, launched a large-scale offensive against the ICU and defeated it. The rebel movement became increasingly radicalised, which resulted in a series of breakaway groups.
Yet the TFG, divided and powerless, was never able to control more than a few districts of Mogadishu. It is in this context that the French section of MSF did its utmost to find a way to provide assistance in the country. The organisation was forced in a series of never-ending negotiations to compromise in a number of areas: the security of its personnel, the recourse to armed guards, the choice of its action, the standard of its relief operations, its contribution to the war efforts of the warring parties, as well as its ability to speak out.
It was the embodiment of operating in unacceptable security conditions and dependence on armed groups. The French section, which had withdrawn from the country inexamined the possibility of a return in What was the background to the debate? It quickly turned into a group with a focus on combating the Islamic courts. The residents of the city who were, in appearance at least, completely unarmed, returned to a level of security they had not enjoyed for fifteen years.
An exploratory mission was carried out in the summer of in Mogadishu and in the port city of Merka in the south of the country, to establish contacts and assess the reality of the situation on the ground. It Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) then that I was charged with monitoring the situation and looking at potential projects for the country.
There were numerous discussions at MSF on whether we should start up a new project. The director of operations was opposed to the use Sonate Nr.6 For Oboe And Basso Continuo - Willem de Fesch / Georg Telemann* / Carl Philip Emanuel Ba armed guards, and brought up the question of the potential security risks for our teams in re-launching activities in Somalia.
Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) addition, four sections of MSF were already working in the country, and that gave some people sufficient grounds to argue that there was no need for the French section to be there. In Afghanistan, in Eritrea and on many occasions in other situations, the organisation has used combatants to ensure the safety of its teams and convoys.
Whilst humanitarian aid should not be imposed by force, the use of armed escorts has sometimes been seen in the history of the organisation as a condition for providing assistance. What were the arguments in the debate that prompted MSF to resort to armed guards in carrying out its operations in Somalia? In the early s, the use of militias was a prerequisite for taking action, from which it then became impossible to extricate ourselves. Although they were supposed to defend the organisation, they would themselves create incidents to generate a further reinforcing of Bill Bailey,Wont You Please Come Home?
- Billy Cotton And His Band, Kathie Kay, Alan Breeze, Alma C system. From the mids onwards, the teams began to reduce the number of guards and to limit our contractual relationships with the militias: MSF, if only to a small degree, was potentially able to play a part in creating the conditions for violence.
Using guards meant that we ran the risk of a member of MSF staff killing someone. The numerous security incidents we had faced in the past meant this was a legitimate argument. But in Somalia, armed guards were above all a necessity, not a choice. And then we realised that even the smallest of shops had a guard armed with a Kalashnikov.
Since the s, security in Somalia had been completely privatised. It was simply something that was accepted by the MSF teams working at the time and that we came to acknowledge. All Somali hospitals are equipped with a kind of cloakroom where owners check in their weapons in exchange for a number. So, after talking it through, that was the reality MSF decided to accept. One of the members of the exploratory mission in summer had been the head of mission inand he met his former deputy at the hotel in Mogadishu.
Like many other Somalis, Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) latter had come to see what was happening in the city with a view to starting up activities again. He was based in Kismayo, in the south of Somalia, and helped us with a visit to Jamaame, a town in the region. A rural area that had for the most part been spared from the fighting, it had a landing strip. This was vital as travelling by car quickly became too dangerous.
Then, of course, there were clearly identified medical needs, as is the case in all Somali rural areas and, above all, the fact that there was no one to provide care.
We carried out a few exploratory missions in the surrounding villages. There were heavy floods between November and January According to what we were told, children died of diarrhoea because of a shortage of drinking water—the people drank water from the river. Aware of the impact of the floods on the harvest, we feared that the nutritional situation would deteriorate too.
There were many discussions over whether it was appropriate to intervene in Jamaame. Many people felt that the process would slow down our objective of starting up in Mogadishu, which was seen as a priority insofar as the capital was heavily populated and the focus of the conflict.
In fact, the project in Jamaame started up very quickly. Some people in the region were already familiar with MSF through our work in Kismayo in the s. The village representatives quickly appointed a single point of contact to manage the vehicles, recruit unskilled staff and rent buildings.
We explained and emphasised the principles that underpin MSF operations, namely neutrality in relation to the conflict, our independence from the political authorities and the imperative of being able to provide care for everyone.
We had a team in place as of March In April, we Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) our attention back to starting the project in Mogadishu. I think the work we did in Jamaame was invaluable.
It is rare to hear a public speaking scientist use terms such as maybe, possibly, probably and so on. For example, we are told with great assurance that the sun, our local star, is one huge nuclear fusion reaction as are all the other suns in the universe.
Never are we informed this is simply the prevailing theory. The theoretical map is nearly always deliberately and consciously confused for the territory. Mathematical theory is the Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live)not the reality. I can prove all kinds of things with numbers that have no relationship to reality what-so-ever.
One must remain under the spell of the priests lest the rabble begin to employ critical thinking. Blind faith and critical thinking cannot co-exist for they are in direct opposition to each other. If we get down into the weeds, we find this Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) on all the time. And if we actually conduct some personal investigation, we find many if not all of these models are based at least in part upon educated guesses, extrapolations and suppositions.
After all, science is hard and we mere peons must be spoon fed the easy version stripped of all ifs, ands, buts and disclaimers. Bottom line, if a corporation, institution or government aka the paymaster wishes to prove pink elephants can fly or global warming aka the new and improved climate change is real, all they need to do is wave several hundred million dollars of grant money around to attract the honey bee scientists to their nest.
May I suggest inquisitive readers explore an alternative theory about the sun and solar system which radically alters the basis upon which much Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) what we think is true? See that word at the end…theory? The people who came up with it readily admit it is a theory, not established fact. However, it is a theory that has accurately predicted several things which have surprised mainstream science.
Please note the people behind the Electric Universe theory are NOT promoting their theory as an explanation for global cooling, warming or Santa Claus, though some of their followers might be. In my opinion it is well worth the time to understand at least the basics. Before you dive in…if you Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) in…remember we are not required to surrender our beliefs in order to explore other theories.
We are exploring, not substituting. What does this have to do with the weather? Well…possibly everything as a matter of fact. It always amazes me how little the sun is discussed when speaking about the weather. If the sun hiccups, the Earth catches pneumonia. For example, sun spot activity is currently at the ebb of the 11 year cycle known about and closely studied for several hundred years. Amazingly, very little is actually known about sun spots beyond supposition based upon more supposition.
What do you suppose Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) going on with the weather during this period of time?
Do you think everything was normal? What does recorded history have to say about this period of time with regard to famine, war and petulance?
Long, short, out of sync, in sync, you name it, nature has it. Just like wave action, there are Nothing Like A Train (Fade In) - VOL* - Billtunes.Com January 2006 (VOL - Fundamentally Live) when waves cycles combine to create monster waves and cycles and times when they cancel each other out and create much smaller waves and cycles. There is some very interesting discussion in nontraditional scientific circles that we may be entering a period of greatly subdued sunspot activity similar to the Maunder minimum…and possibly even worse.
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